Abstract：The antibiotic resistance issue has attracted international attentions. A number of developed countries have already established resistance monitoring systems, including the NARMS in United States, the CIPARS in Canada, the EARS-Net in European Union, and the DANMAP in Denmark. This article describes these monitoring systems and their recent findings, with a focus on the current resistance situations and the measures taken for resistance prevention and control in Europe and North America. For comparison, the CARSS in China is also included. Based on the experience gained from the above-mentioned resistance surveillance programs and the challenges faced by China, considerations are put forward to facilitate antibiotic resistance surveillance and research in China, which include, but not to be limited to, improving the surveillance and monitoring systems, applying international good practices, promoting antibiotic stewardship, and accelerating the development of new antibacterial drugs.